Sabtu, 24 Juli 2010

konsonan of place

Konsonan Bahasa Inggris

Konsonan Bahasa Inggris

Bahasa Inggris mempunyai 44 bunyi yang secara garis besar terbagi atas tiga yakni :
Konsonan (consonants)
Vokal (vowels), dan
Semivokal (semivowels atau semiconsonant)

Untuk menghasilkan konsonan bahasa Inggris kita perlu mengenali alat-alat ucap yang terlibat atau yang disebut organ of speech yakni lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, velum, uvula, tongue tip, front of the tongue, back of the tongue, mouth cavity, nose cavity, pharynx, epiglottis, glottis, esophagus, dan larynx. Organ of speech berperan penting dalam menghasilkan bunyi-bunyi konsonan bahasa Inggris.

Dasar-dasar Pengelompokan Konsonan dalam Bahasa Inggris

Terdapat tiga parameter deskriptif yang digunakan untuk mengelompokkan bunyi konsonan, yakni :
Konsonan berdasarkan Voicing State

Berdasarkan voicing state, ada dua macam konsonan, yaitu voiced dan non-voiced. Konsonan dianggap voiced jika vocal cord-nya ikut bergetar saat menghasilkan bunyi tertentu seperti [b], [d], [g], [z], [J] dan lain-lain. Sebaliknya, konsonan dianggap devoiced jika vocal-cord tidak ikut bergetar seperti pada bunyi [p], [t], [k], [s], [č] dan lain-lain.
Konsonan berdasarkan Place of articulation

Atas dasar place of articulation, konsonan diuraikan berdasarkan artikulator-nya, baik yang aktif maupun passif. Bunyi yang dihasilkan oleh dua bibir yang bibir atasnya (upper-lips) aktif sedangkan bibir bawahnya (lower-lips) passif disebut sebagai bilabial consonants seperti [p], [b] dan [m]. Bunyi [b] bersifat voiced, dan [p] berfitur devoiced dan [m] bersifat nasal.

Bunyi yang dihasilkan oleh lower-lips sebagai artikulator aktif dan oleh upper-teeth sebagai artikulator passif disebut dengan labiodental consonants seperti pada [v] yang bersifat voiced dan [f] yang berfitur devoiced.

Dental consonants merupakan bunyi yang dihasilkan dengan mengaktifkan ujung lidah (tip of the tongue) dalam menyentuh gigi atas (upper teeth). Dengan kata lain, secara fonetik artikulatoris dapat dikatakan bahwa ujung lidah berfungsi sebagai artikulator aktif dan gigi atas sebagai yang pasif. Contoh bunyi seperti ini yakni pada [q] yang bersifat devoiced dan [d] yang bersifat voiced.
Konsonan berdasarkan Manner of articulation

Menurut Willian O’grady dalam bukunya Contemporary Linguistics: an Introduction (1996), terdapat empat alat ucap yang penting dalam mengulas konsonan berdasarkan cara artikulasinya yaitu the lips, tongue, velum dan glottis. Berdasarkan cara artikulasinya terbagi dua yakni oral sounds dan nasal sounds. Bunyi oral terjadi jika uvula naik dan menutup nasal cavity. Sedangkan bunyi nasal terjadi jika uvula turun sehingga terdapat celah untuk keluarnya arus udara melalui rongga hidung, dengan kata lain oral cavity tertutup.

Berdasarkan manner of articulation ini, terdapat tiga tingkatan struktur pengelompokan konsonan yakni :

- Complete closure atau kebertutupan sempurna. Dalam struktur ini arus udara di blok sehingga tidak bisa keluar lewat rongga mulut dan rongga hidung. Bunyi yang dihasilkan melalui cara ini disebut plosive atau stops consonants.

- Close approximation. Pada struktur ini alat-alat ucap saling merapat sehingga menghasilkan turbulansi dan friksi. Bunyi yang dihasilkan dengan cara ini disebut sebagai fricative consonants.

- Open approximation. Dalam posisi ini alat ucap agak terbuka dan tidak ada turbulansi sehingga friksi masih dapat didengar. Bunyi yang dihasilkan dengan cara ini disebut sebagai approximant consonants.




CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A deductive approach is used to predict vowel and consonant places of articulation. Based on two main criteria, viz. simple and efficient use of an acoustic tube, along with maximum acoustic dispersion, the Distinctive Regions Model (DRM) of speech production derives regions that closely correspond to established vowel and consonant places of articulation. 1 Introduction Attempts to explain speech production data often suffer from circularity. That is, the classification of data tends to be purely descriptive without shedding light on the processes that give rise to them. In criticizing the databased approach, Lindblom (1990) favors, instead, the use of substance-based approaches. Here, deductions are derived from specific criteria or from characteristics of the speech production and/or perceptual systems in order to explain the data. In fact, researcher have successfully exploited the substance-based approach in explaining vowel systems, using a perceptually-driven maximum acoustic
Attempts to explain speech production data often suffer from circularity. That is, the classification of data tends to be purely descriptive without shedding light on the processes that give rise to them. In criticizing the databased approach, Lindblom (1990) favors, instead, the use of substance-based approaches.
Here, deductions are derived from specific criteria or from characteristics of the speech production and/or perceptual systems in order to explain the data. In fact, researcher have successfully exploited the substance-based approach in explaining vowel systems, using a perceptually-driven maximum acoustic dispersion criterion (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972; Lindblorn, 1986). But this approach, too, may be thought of as being circular, to some extent, in that the criterion used may be viewed as, merely, a more encompassing description of the vowels themselves.
The crucial task then is to explain the characteristics of the speech perception/production system itself. For example, what is it about the human speech apparatus that yields three and not four or five places of articulation? Is the vocal tract designed primarily for feeding or does it reflect adaptations specialized for speech? To answer some of these questions, we undertook to investigate what deformations (i.e. vocal tract configurations/shapes) of a simple acoustic tube, open at one end and closed at the other, and modeled after a male vocal tract, will yield (i) a good acoustic communication device, and (ii) an acoustic repertoire that closely matches the phonetic richness of human speech.

CHAPTER II
CONSONANT OF PLACE

II.I. Place of articulation

Certain consonants in human language are distinguished by which state is active during production of the sound. For example, pronounce the sound [m], as in mat, and hold the sound. While producing this sound, place your fingers at the base of your throat. You should feel the vibration of the vocal folds. Since the sound [m] is vibrating, this is a voiced sound.
Now make the sound [p], as in pat. You can't really hold this sound, but again put your fingers near the base of your throat while you say [p]. You shouldn't feel much vibration, if any. This is because the vocal folds are held apart, making a voiceless sound.
Now say the sounds [p] and [b], as in bat, with your fingers at the base of the throat. When you say [p], there should be no vibration, but when you say [b], there should be vibration. Think about what you are doing with your mouth to make both sounds. Both sounds are made in basically the same way, but one is voiceless and one is voiced.

II.2. Places of articulation (passive & active):

In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an active (moving) articulator (typically some part of the tongue) and a passive (stationary) articulator (typically some part of the roof of the mouth). Along with the manner of articulation and phonation, this gives the consonant its distinctive sound.
place of articulation
The term place of articulation, as discussed in the last section, classifies speech sounds in terms of where in the vocal tract the shape of the vocal tract is altered. In this section, we will present the major places of articulation.
Bilabial
Bilabial sounds are those sounds made by the articulation of the lips against each other. Examples of such sounds in English are the following: [b], [p], [m].


Labiodental
Labiodental sounds are those sounds made by the articulation of the upper teeth towards the lower lip. Examples of such sounds in English are the following: [f], [v].

Interdental
Interdental sounds are those sounds made by the articulation of the tongue between the teeth. Examples of such sounds in English are the following: , .

Dental
Dental sounds are those sounds made by the articulation of the tip of the tongue towards the back of the teeth. Such sounds are not present in Standard American English, but in some Chicano English dialects and certain Brooklyn dialects, the sounds [t] and [d] are pronounced with a dental articulation.

Alveolar
Alveolar sounds are those sounds made by the articulation of the tip of the tongue towards the alveolar ridge, the ridge of cartilage behind the teeth. Examples of such sounds in English are the following: [t], [d], [s], [z], [n], [l], .

Alveopalatal
Alveopalatal sounds are those sounds made by the articulation of the front of the tongue towards the area between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. Examples of such sounds in English are the following: , , , .

Palatal
Palatal sounds are those sounds made by the articulation of the body of the tongue towards the hard palate. An example of such a sound in English is [j].

Velar
Velar sounds are those sounds made by the articulation of the body of the tongue towards the velum. Examples of such sounds in English are the following: [k], [g], .


Uvular
Uvular sounds are those sounds made by the articulation of the back of the tongue towards the uvula. Uvular sounds do not exist in English, but the French "r" is pronounced by the uvular sounds

Pharyngeal
Pharyngeal sounds are those sounds made by the articulation of the tongue root towards the back of the pharynx. Pharyngeal sounds do not exist in Standard American English, but are found in languages such as Arabic and Hebrew.

Glottal
Glottal sounds are those sounds made at the glottis. Examples of glottal sounds in English are the following: , .

On the next page is a diagram that illustrates all the places of articulation.
A place of articulation is defined as both the active and passive articulators. For instance, the active lower lip may contact either a passive upper lip (bilabial, like [m]) or the upper teeth (labiodental, like [f]). The hard palate may be contacted by either the front or the back of the tongue. If the front of the tongue is used, the place is called retroflex; if back of the tongue ("dorsum") is used, the place is called "dorsal-palatal", or more commonly, just palatal.
There are five basic active articulators: the lip ("labial consonants"), the flexible front of the tongue ("coronal consonants"), the middle/back of the tongue ("dorsal consonants"), the root of the tongue together with the epiglottis ("radical consonants"), and the larynx ("laryngeal consonants"). These articulators can act independently of each other, and two or more may work together in what is called coarticulation (see below).
The passive articulation, on the other hand, is a continuum without many clear-cut boundaries. The places linguolabial and interdental, interdental and dental, dental and alveolar, alveolar and palatal, palatal and velar, velar and uvular merge into one another, and a consonant may be pronounced somewhere between the named places.
In addition, when the front of the tongue is used, it may be the upper surface or blade of the tongue that makes contact ("laminal consonants"), the tip of the tongue ("apical consonants"), or the under surface ("sub-apical consonants"). These articulations also merge into one another without clear boundaries.
Consonants that have the same place of articulation, such as the alveolar sounds -- n, t, d, s, z, l -- in English, are said to be homorganic.
A homorganic nasal rule is a case where the point of articulation of the initial sound is assimilated by the last sound in a prefix. An example of this rule is found in language Yoruba, where ba, "hide", becomes mba, "is hiding", while sun, "sleep", becomes nsun, "is sleeping".

II.3. Speech and the Vocal Tract

As described in the earlier lesson, speech sound is created by airflow through the vocal tract. In pulmonic sounds, which are the sounds we will consider here, the lungs push air up into the trachea, through the larynx, and outward through the vocal tract.
So how are different sounds made? In part 1, we discussed that one way to make different sounds is to vary the state of the glottis, making either a voiced or voiceless sound.
Another way is to vary the shape of the vocal tract. Imagine the vocal tract as a tube, through which air passes. If this tube is simply open, the airflow creates a sound. But if you alter the shape of that tube, the airflow moves differently, making a different sound.
Here's an experiment that some of you may have tried. Take an empty bottle and blow air across the top of the bottle. If you can get the airflow just right, you should be able to produce a low sound. Now fill the bottle halfway with water. Blow across the bottle opening again. This time the sound is higher. If you put some more water in the bottle, the sound will get even higher.
What's happening? For a more detailed discussion, you can view the lesson Acoustic Phonetics. However, for now, just understand that if the bottle (vocal tract) is not as filled with water (larger), the sound will be a deep, low sound. If the bottle (vocal tract) is filled with water (smaller), the sound will be a higher sound.
When we make speech sounds, one thing that is happening is that we are varying the shape of the vocal tract, making the sound different. For example, say the sound [t]. To make this sound, you are raising the tip of your tongue behind your teeth and then lowering your tongue. When you do this, the air builds up behind the closure made by your tongue and teeth and is then released. When the air is released by the tongue, the air travels outward through
a small area, just from the teeth to outside the mouth.


CHAPTER III
CLOSING

III.1 Summary

The term place of articulation, as discussed in the last section, classifies speech sounds in terms of where in the vocal tract the shape of the vocal tract is altered. In this section, we will present the major places of articulation.

Bilabial
Labiodental
Interdental
Dental
Alveolar
Alveopalatal
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Glottal

As described in the earlier lesson, speech sound is created by airflow through the vocal tract. In pulmonic sounds, which are the sounds we will consider here, the lungs push air up into the trachea, through the larynx, and outward through the vocal tract.
So how are different sounds made? In part 1, we discussed that one way to make different sounds is to vary the state of the glottis, making either a voiced or voiceless sound.
When we make speech sounds, one thing that is happening is that we are varying the shape of the vocal tract, making the sound different. For example, say the sound [t]. To make this sound, you are raising the tip of your tongue behind your teeth and then lowering your tongue. When you do this, the air builds up behind the closure made by your tongue and teeth and is then released. When the air is released by the tongue, the air travels outward through a small area, just from the teeth to outside the mouth.

III.II References
A1 Dakkak, M. Mrayati and R. Carr6. 1994. transitions formantiques correspondant h des constrictions rehlis6es dans la partie arri6re du conduit vocal. Linguistica Communicatio, VI: 59-63. S.E.
Blumstein arid K.N. Stevens. 1979. Acoustic invariance in speech production: Evidence from measurements of the spectral characteristics of stop consonants. J. Aeoust. Soc. Am., 66: 1001-1017.
M. Boulogne, R. Carr6 and J.P. Charras. 1973. La fr6quence fondamentale, les formants, 616ments
d'identification des locuteurs. Revue d'Acoustique, 6: 343-350•
C.P. Browman and L. Goldstein. 1989. Articulatory gestures as phofiological units• Phonology, 6: 201-252.




























PREFACE

Turning our thanks to Almighty God for His blessings and gifts so that we can finish the paper with the title of consonant place properly. We realize that in the preparation of this paper is not perfect, therefore criticism and constructive suggestions which we strongly expect. for your attention and your suggestions we are very grateful.










Author
















TABLE OF CONTENTS


PREFACE. …........................................................................................ !
TABLE OF CONTENTS …................................................................. !!
CHAPTER I …...................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION …............................................................................. 1
CHAPTER II …..................................................................................... 2
CONSONANT OF PLACE …............................................................... 2
II.I. Place of articulation …............................................................... 2
II.II. Places of articulation (passive & active) …................................ 2
II.III. Speech and the Vocal Tract …..................................................... 5

CHAPTER III ….................................................................................... 6
CLOSING ….......................................................................................... 6
III.1 Summary …................................................................................... 6
III.II References …................................................................................ 7












TUGAS
INTRODUCTION TO LINGUISTICS

DISUSUN OLEH :
1. THEOBALDUS DARI
2. SATRIA JAYA
3.
4.
5.

FACULTY OF EDUCATION SOCIAL SCIENCES AND HUMANITIES
IKIP BUDI UTOMO
MALANG
2009 / 2010

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